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France (French: [fʁɑ̃s]), authoritatively the French Republic (French: République française; French articulation: ​[ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a sovereign express whose domain comprises of metropolitan France in Western Europe and a few abroad districts and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan zone of France stretches out from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. The abroad domains incorporate French Guiana in South America and a few islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian seas. The nation's 18 indispensable areas (five of which are arranged abroad) range a joined zone of 643,801 square kilometers (248,573 sq mi) and an aggregate populace of 67.25 million (as of June 2018).[10] France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the nation's biggest city and primary social and business focus. Other major urban zones incorporate Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Amid the Iron Age, what is currently metropolitan France was occupied by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome attached the zone in 51 BC, holding it until the landing of Germanic Franks in 476, who framed the Kingdom of France. France developed as a noteworthy European power in the Late Middle Ages following its triumph in the Hundred Years' War (1337 to 1453). Amid the Renaissance, French culture thrived and a worldwide pilgrim realm was set up, which by the twentieth century would turn into the second biggest in the world.[11] The sixteenth century was ruled by religious common wars among Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France turned into Europe's overwhelming social, political, and military power in the seventeenth century under Louis XIV.[12] In the late eighteenth century, the French Revolution toppled the supreme government, set up one of present day history's soonest republics, and saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which communicates the country's goals right up 'til today.

In the nineteenth century, Napoleon took control and built up the First French Empire. His consequent Napoleonic Wars formed the course of mainland Europe. Following the fall of the Empire, France persevered through a turbulent progression of governments finishing with the foundation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a noteworthy member in World War I, from which it rose successful, and was one of the Allies in World War II, yet went under occupation by the Axis controls in 1940. Following freedom in 1944, a Fourth Republic was set up and later disintegrated throughout the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, driven by Charles de Gaulle, was framed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and almost the various provinces ended up free in the 1960s and commonly held close financial and military associations with France.

France has for some time been a worldwide focal point of craftsmanship, science, and logic. It has the world's fourth-biggest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the main traveler goal, accepting around 83 million remote guests annually.[13] France is a created nation with the world's seventh-biggest economy by ostensible GDP,[14] and tenth-biggest by acquiring influence parity.[15] as far as total family unit riches, it positions fourth in the world.[16] France performs well in worldwide rankings of training, social insurance, future, and human development.[17][18] France is viewed as an incredible influence in worldwide affairs,[19] being one of the five changeless individuals from the United Nations Security Council with the ability to veto and an authority atomic weapon state. It is a main part condition of the European Union and the Eurozone,[20] and an individual from the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organization for Economic Co-task and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and La Francophonie